I No Longer Want to do Big Things for God

When I was growing up, if you were to ask me what success was, I would have said doing big things for God.

What I classified as “big things” was indefinitely giving my life to God, winning souls to Christ and allowing Him to use me to do miracles and wonders. It wasn’t until last year that God started calling me on this, for God’s view of success is very different than mine.

The first thing that clued me in to my misconstrued mindset was encountering the stories of missionaries that nobly gave up everything for God and traveled land and sea only to tragically die on the mission’s field. This seemed like failure, but as time went on I discovered the stories of people in the Bible that showed anything but visible success.

The prophet Isaiah is one such character.

Isaiah was commissioned by God and experienced Him in an awe-inspiring vision. He witnessed the beauty and majesty of the Lord sitting on His throne in His temple, saw the angels that worshiped and ministered before the Lord, and even experienced the purifying of his tongue and his sins atoned for.  In Isaiah 6:8, when the Lord asked “whom shall I send? And who will go for us?” Isaiah cried out in gratefulness and awe, “here I am. Send me!”

But the mission to which God called Isaiah would lead to anything but attractive results. Isaiah would spend the next 59 years speaking to people who were ever hearing but never understanding, who had hearts who were calloused and ears that were dull (Isaiah 6:9-10). Isaiah asked the Lord, I imagine hopefully, “For how long, Lord?” Only to hear the dire proclamation: “Until the cities lie ruined and without inhabitant… until the LORD has sent everyone far away and the land is utterly forsaken” (Isaiah 6:11-12).

To these stubborn, perfidious people Isaiah preached the mercy and love of God; “yet the Lord longs to be gracious to you” (Isaiah 30:18). But he himself didn’t experience the fruit of his labor. Isaiah must have come to terms with the people’s lack of response.  In Isaiah 25:1 he declared, “Lord, You are God: I will exalt You and praise Your name, for in perfect faithfulness You have done wonderful things, things planned long ago”.

The prophet Isaiah challenges my view of results signifying success. To be faithful to God is to obey His directing and leave the results up to God. He is the one who changes hearts, and if He wants to use us that is His prerogative. Like Isaiah, we may never see any results of our faithfulness. And like Isaiah, we need to be okay with that.

I read a book recently for a class called Church Behind the Wire. 

If there was ever someone who would be entitled to a victim mindset, it would be Barnabas Mam. Barnabas was one of 200 Christians who survived the Cambodia killing fields under Pol Pot. He was separated from his family, most of his family members were brutally murdered, he was forced to flee the country and live in a refugee camp for many years. But all of this has not stopped Barnabas from faithfully following God.

In the midst of torture, hunger, disease and pain in a concentration camp, God gave Barnabas a dream, telling him “You won’t die. You will survive for My purpose”. At one point, Barnabas was interrogated – he was asked if he spoke English and if he was a Christian. In a time where being educated or religious was considered a crime by the Communists, answering yes would have been an immediate death sentence. But Barnabas did not fear death, and he could not lie. Miraculously, God saved his life and gave him incredible favor with the commander in charge.

Barnabas is a living example of what it means to be a faithful witness in the midst of atrocious circumstances. Even after surviving the horrors of the killing fields, he has not allowed his experiences to shape his faith. He has not become a victim, but a victor. He has planted hundreds of churches, preached to thousands and written music that has spoken powerfully to the Cambodian people. His circumstances have not hindered his faithfulness, and that is success! He came to Millar’s Missions Conference and it was so amazing to see his big smile and his heart or the gospel!



I no longer want to do big things for God! Instead, like Isaiah, I want to be faithful to God, no matter the results. Like Barnabas, I want to be obedient to God no matter the circumstances. It has taken me almost twenty-two years to come to the conclusion that even if no one was ever saved as a direct result of my influence, even if I spent my entire life serving God in small ways, this could be a success in God’s eyes


My Least Favorite Prayers

I’ll just admit it. There are times, especially when I’m tired, I will count how many times people say a name of God in their prayer.

But this is not a blog about making fun of the way people pray.



Okay, just a little fun. 🙂

In the last while, there has been four little words that I have noticed a lot of Christians say at the end of their prayers. And for a while, this has been my least favorite prayer.

“…Your will be done.”

It started getting under my skin when, in the middle of a crisis, the person who volunteered to pray did not passionately approach God’s throne, entreating the Father on behalf of the person in trouble. Instead, they safely prayed, “Your will be done”.  Then I started noticing a lot of people pray very specific prayers, but at the end tack on the ol’ “Your will be done” as if it is a safe-guard. I need to still look spiritual, no matter the outcome.

It took me literally all last semester of pondering, ranting to my best friend, being challenged in class and allowing the Holy Spirit to show me two things I need to stop and one thing I need to start…

I need to stop the judgin’.

Romans 14:4 says, “who are you to pass judgement on the servant of another? It is before his own master that he stands or falls”.

There may be some truth to my misgivings, but this does not give me the licence to judge other people’s prayers. God has been revealing a lot of pride and judgementaliness in me this last semester – unfortunately, this is just one area.

I need to stop thinking my will is God’s will.

In 2 Kings, there is an account of a king of Judah named Hezekiah. He’s one of the few good kings in the book. In fact, God says that “there was no one like him among all the kings of Judah, either before him or after him” (2 Kings 18v5). He’s a pretty cool dude.

But in chapter 20, Hezekiah gets super sick, and Isaiah the prophet goes to him and tells him he will die. Hezekiah doesn’t like this very much, and so he prays, pleading with God to save his life. God grants his request, and he lives another fifteen years.

When I read this, I want to say to everyone: See? Hezekiah prays confidently for a specific good thing, and God acts on his prayer. Why should we pray for God’s will all the time? Shouldn’t we just pray for the obvious? 

But then I kept reading and saw that during the last fifteen years of his life, his son Manasseh was born, who became the next king of Judah.

And unfortunately, Manasseh was one of the most evil kings in Judah’s history. He worshiped false gods. He brought idols and prostitution into God’s temple. He sacrificed his sons to the pagan gods and engaged in many occult practices. He led the nation into terrible sin. This sin would effect them for many years to come and ultimately lead to the Babylonian exile.

God in His grace answered the prayer of His servant Hezekiah. But this “good” request resulted in something terrible. Hezekiah’s will, his desire to live, was probably not as good as God’s will. And I think if Hezekiah could have seen the future, he would not have begged God for another chance. (I do believe in the sovereign will of God, but I’m not gonna get into that now.)

I do not know why God doesn’t answer my good prayers… prayers for healing, for salvation, for freedom. But I do know that God sometimes allows terrible things for a good purpose. Jesus’ death on the cross proves this!

I need to start praying like Jesus.

Before going to the cross, Jesus begged God to make some other way.  “Father, if you are willing, take this cup from me; yet not my will, but Yours be done ” (Luke 22:42). Not all of Jesus’ prayers were answered! If Jesus Himself prayed for God’s will to happen, and taught His disciples to pray this (Matthew 6:10), I sure as heck should pray this!

Coming to these conclusions has been changing the way I pray. It has humbled me to realize the judgement I’ve had towards others and the arrogance in which I have approached God, assuming my will should be His will. Thank You Jesus for Your undeserved love and mercy!

I might not always use the exact phrase “Your will be done”, but I want to trust God more in prayer, no matter the results.

I Learned to Stop Being a Leader at Camp This Summer

campWhen people as me “how was camp?” it’s always hard to find an answer… hard? crazy? exhausting? exhilarating? incredible? fun? stretching? It was definitely all of those and more.

A few of my camp adventures include…

-I took a “shower” at an outdoor tap at the beach. There was too much of a lineup at the real showers, and I was getting desperate!

-I was complimented a lot by kids who were attempting to bribe me to let them into the dining hall for meals. My favorite was a little boy who would ask every day “Why did the girl wearing ____ (whatever I was wearing that day) cross the road? … Because she was pretty.”

-I was sitting on the front steps of the office, doing office work, when a friendly young bear surprised me by lumbering around the corner, only 15 feet away.

-A 13 year old boy had a very huge, very obvious and very annoying crush on me. His cabin mates were teasing him mercilessly, so finally I said, “you know what, guys? It doesn’t matter”. They all looked a bit surprised at my outburst and asked, “why?!” I replied, “because I am 22 and he is 13”. To my frustration, he shrugged, smiled impishly and said “that’s not that different”. Gross!

-I got to lead a canoe trip to an island. And it was a silent prayer retreat all day – no talking!

-I got bronchitis for two weeks this summer, which was super challenging. Praise God, He sustained me!

I marvel a lot at the fact that my job was to bring the fun to camp.  One day my job was to go on a boat and explore new sites for new camps. My job was to hang out with kids and teenagers and lead them closer to Jesus. My job was to pray for the staff and encourage the volunteers. I loved my job! 

I think I grew a lot this summer as a leader. During June staff I learned to be patient, because I was the only person who had done it before and most of them had never been senior staff before. I learned to listen to God’s leading and throw away the schedule when He was trying to do cool things. I learned to lead people by loving them, flaws and all.

But something else I learned, and am still learning, is to STOP leading. I was super challenged in one of the last chapels of the summer. The speaker was talking about Saul on the road to Damascus. He was a religious leader, someone who thought he had God figured out, someone who was passionately trying to serve God. But he was deceived – he was ‘serving God’ by killing Christians. Then God steps in and BANG! Saul becomes Paul, one of the coolest Christians in the Bible who wrote most of the New Testament!

I realized again that yes, I may be a leader at camp, but I cannot take that same mentality into my relationship with God. Lately I have been stressing again about the future, second guessing myself in my decision to go back to Bible school. I realized that somewhere along the way I had changed to thinking about my future and my plans, instead of trusting God’s plan for the future.  I need to stop being the freaking leader and just let God lead!

“You’re changing my heart
To want what You want
To love how You love
And that is enough
There’s no greater plan that I need to know
You only ask me to follow” 

-Tenth Avenue North’s song “What You Want” 




I Am Learning to Love the Gospel

I came to Millar College of the Bible at a very dry place, spiritually. I finished my year at Millar feeling a lot more encouraged … But it had to get worse before it got better.

Numerous things happened in the first semester that forced me to fall at Jesus’ feet. My grandma passed away. I hit a deer and had to write off my car. Stress was causing my back and hands to be really painful. I really struggled to find friends or even find motivation to find friends. Numerous sins and the desire to sin seemed to be so big in my heart that it felt like I was in a constant battle. To top it off, I realized I had been basing my identity on being a guitar player / singer, so when I got placed on a worship team as the keys player, I was crushed. I think I cried more in the first semester than I have my whole life.

So, if I could tell you the number one thing I learned at my year at Millar, it probably would simply be this: the gospel. It is crazy how I am 21 years old, I grew up in the church, but I feel like I am only now understanding it.

Pastor and author Tim Keller put it so beautifully:

“The gospel is this: We are more sinful and flawed in ourselves than we ever dared believe, yet at the very same time we are more loved and accepted in Jesus Christ than we ever dared hope.”

Throughout this last year, I have come to realize that, without even knowing it, I had forgotten the simplicity of the gospel.  And, because of this, I was struggling. I had forgotten that “nothing good lives in me, that is, in my sinful nature” (Romans 7:18). That even my best performance, my greatest deeds are like filthy rags compared to God’s perfection (Isaiah 64:6). And because I forgot that, I started living as if I needed to prove myself to God, and feeling immense shame when I would fail.

I had also forgotten that, because God is so extremely loving, so good and gracious, He loves me. He made me in His image and paid the price so He could have a relationship with me. Psalm 139:13 says, “You knit me together in my mother’s womb. I praise You for I am fearfully and wonderfully made”. Even better than that, He has taken my brokenness and made me whole.  God made him who had no sin to be sin for us, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God. (2 Corinthians 5:21)

Isn’t God amazing?

I found this diagram the other day that really illustrates what was going on in my heart…

growing awareness of the gospel

As we walk with God and read His Word, we will grow in our awareness of His perfect holiness and our own sinfulness. If our awareness of the cross and all that Jesus did for us does not grow with that, we will choose to either ignore God’s holiness or ignore our own sin. When we think less of God, this can lead us to pride in our accomplishments. When we think more of ourselves, it can lead to shame, fear, insecurity and a whole host of other things.

This is the battle that I have been fighting this past year. I can honestly say that I am learning more about Jesus than I ever thought I would and I am also realizing the depth how much I need Him.

I pray that you too can learn to love the gospel and recognize it is NOT just for your salvation, but every day living. It is meant to change your life!

Jesus Did Not Die Just For You

The lights are dim. The youth pastor’s voice is passionate. And as the listeners take in the beautiful truths of the gospel, a Christian colloquialism is thrown out…

“Even if you were the only person on earth, Jesus would still have died for you!”

I’ve heard this saying, or something like it, at least a dozen times in the last few years. I believe it is meant to communicate God’s incredible, massive, astounding love for us. It is used to inspire awe in each person, as they consider Jesus’ sacrifice for them. It might even be a thought loosely based on the parable of the good Shepherd leaving the 99 sheep in search of the one lost fluffy.

It has always struck me as off, somehow. It has taken me until recently to mull it over enough in my mind to come to the conclusion that that I don’t believe that this should be taught. Here’s why…

The Gospel is NOT about YOU…

We live in an incredibly self-centered culture. I think too often we treat our relationship with Jesus the same way, as if He came and died just so we personally would be happy. We don’t live our lives for other people. We don’t go to others for help. We don’t confess our sins to one another. So when we say “Jesus died just for you”, it is so easy to think, “Welp, I am saved, so I guess I’m good. My job is done…”

Jesus does not agree. His last words to his disciples was not commending them for believing or encouraging them in their salvation. He commanded them, “GO and make disciples of ALL nations…” (Matthew 28:19)

This random thought hit me in all the pondering. If all that Jesus hoped to accomplish in me was salvation, then why am I still here? Why is the church still here? 

And I guess that’s my point in all of this. Jesus did not die just for you…. He died for the entire world. And if you are living just for you, you are not living in obedience to God’s word.

2 Corinthians 5:14-15 explains this so well! “For Christ’s love compels us, because we are convinced that one died for all, and therefore all died. And he died for all, that those who live should no longer live for themselves but for him who died for them and was raised again.” 

I’ve noticed that the writers of the Bible almost never wrote to an individual – they always wrote to the body of believers. Again, this is in stark contrast to our Canadian culture, where everything is about the individual. That’s not the way God sees things.

I don’t know about you, but I need to remind myself of this truth more often… 

Jesus did not die just for me. He died for my family, my friends, my neighbours, the dude that fills up my car with gas, and every single person who has and will ever be born.

Discovering My Own Existence

I first experienced this doubt when I met two individuals at a place I was staying in Switzerland. It was a cold fall evening; most of our friends had gone out for a night on the town, but I had already been spending copious amounts of money and wanted a quiet night with not too much adventure.

Well, adventure found me, because the conversation I had with those two people lead me on almost a year long journey of doubt and discovery. Both of them struggled with this question of existence. How can we know we exist?

This doubt is not a new one. During my time in Switzerland, I learned about Buddhism, a religion that is centered on the belief that we don’t exist. They claim that by ridding ourselves of all desire it will alleviate suffering, and if we can come to the realization that we don’t exist, life will cease to exist. Nirvana is the goal; a transcendent state in which there is no suffering, desire, self, and it results in being released from Karma and reincarnation.

Over the last year, this question of my own existence started to eat away at me. I would find myself having surreal moments that felt as though I were this outsider, watching myself. I would see myself living and breathing, walking, talking, but it felt fake, somehow.

During the original conversation that started this whole thing, Descartes philosophical approach was brought up. Descartes was a Catholic philosopher who set out to prove his own existence. His argument was that the act of doubting proves the reality of thought, or a mind.  “I think, therefore I am.”

This argument has never really sat right with me, and I could never really figure out why until recently.

At Millar, the Bible School I have been attending, we take a mod, a whole college course in one week. It’s fairly intense, especially since one of the mods I took was World Religions. Honestly, I left the classroom with a headache every day from all the information!

This leads me to the epiphany of why Descartes’ philosophical proposition didn’t sit right with me and the answer to the question that has plagued my mind for so long.

Descartes claimed to doubt everything, but the very phrase “I think, therefore I am” is laden with certainties. He is certain that he exists distinctly apart from other beings (“I think, therefore I am”). He is assuming the laws of logic exist and that they correspond to reality. He is taking uniformity for granted, that the logic he uses will be constant in time and not change by the time he expresses it. He is certain that he can know this, which begs the question. How can thinking prove existence? It only proves the existence of thought.  But before all this is the important question… how can we know anything? Where does knowledge come from?

If you say that you know A, the reason you might give is B. But if you are asked to give a reason you know B, you will have to give C. This goes on to infinity, with the result being that you don’t actually know anything. Therefore, all thinking has to start somewhere and rests upon some measure of faith.


Something that my World Religions professor has helped me to see is that this works perfectly with my Christian worldview!

Christianity provides the conditions or presuppositions of rational inquiry…  the foundation of knowledge. We would say that we can have knowledge because we have God, who created knowledge. Logic exists because God is logical. Knowledge exists because God is all knowing. Uniformity exists because God does not change, and has promised certain laws and principles won’t change.

Without God in the picture, we are left with nothing. No reason for logic, no reason for the laws of nature, no reason for existence, no reason for reason.

So how do we know we exist?

We can know by trusting the Bible which tells us that we are created in the image of God. Without God, we can not know anything.

Alright, there’s your philosophical thoughts for the day! If you are interested in learning from my professor John Feakes, he has a lot of great lectures online at this website… http://newlifesanctuarychurch.com/audio/lectures/


Queen Esther the Coward: NOT the Sunday School Story

The story of Queen Esther has always been one of my favorite Bible stories, but not for the reasons you may think.  The truth is, I believe Christians have put Queen Esther on a pedestal and see her as a courageous heroine, when she really wasn’t. She was a coward!

For an assignment in Bible school, I had to write a paper on anything I chose. I chose Esther. I thought you might be interested to read my perspective, so I decided to share it with you today!


The Sunday School story is told like this: once upon a time there was a King who needed a wife, so he threw a beauty pageant.  There was a beautiful young girl named Esther who was chosen amongst all the other girls in the kingdom to become the King’s wife.  She concealed her identity as a Jew, because she wanted to listen to the wise counsel of her guardian, Mordecai.  There was an evil man, an important official named Haman, who hated Mordecai because Mordecai would not bow down to him.  So Haman hatched a plot to pass a law that would kill not only Mordecai, but all of the Jews.  When Esther heard about this conspiracy, she courageously went to the King and asked him to spare her and her people.  Even though it was very dangerous for her to approach the King, she was able to save all of the Jewish people.

A deeper excavation of the story of Esther reveals details that paint Esther in a different light, not as a courageous heroine, but a coward.  The text does not say why Mordecai compels Esther to keep her Jewish identity hidden.  Perhaps there was rampant anti-Semitic feelings in those days, but scripture is silent on this.[1]

The implications of Esther hiding her Jewish identity are important.  The Jews had many laws that caused them to stand out among the nations around them.  There were various sacrifices that they needed to give, special festival days to observe, ceremonial practices and cleansing laws to keep, and dietary restrictions to follow.  By hiding her identity, Esther would not have been keeping the Sabbath.  She would be eating whatever Syrian food was put in front of her, even if it was unclean.  And she slept with a pagan King who was not her husband.  In modern terms, she was a Christian living like an Atheist.

King Xerxes’ beauty pageant was an extravagant show of his wealth and power.  He gathered beautiful women from all over the land and had them undergo beauty treatments for twelve months.  At the end of the twelve months, each woman would have a night with the King.  Bryan R.  Gregory calls this “bedroom auditions”[2].

According to Charles R.  Swindoll,

“Josephus, the Jewish historian, tells us there were as many as 400 women involved in this rather remarkable competition.  They would have a year in which to polish every seductive art, to enhance their beauty by pampering their bodies and applying the art of costume and cosmetic.  Ultimately, it was intended that elegance, charm, physical beauty, and erotic seduction would carry the day.”[3]

In Esther 2:17 it says that Esther pleased the King more than any other woman, and as a result of her performance the King made her Queen.

What were Esther’s thoughts during all of this?  Because the text does not say, we can not be certain.  Being the Queen of Persia would certainly have been a step up from whatever position she had before.  Bryan R. Gregory points out that by becoming Queen, Esther would have been instantly living a life of luxury, something that would have been desirable.[4]

An interesting detail to the story is found in Esther 2:6. It states that Esther and Mordecai’s distant relative had been among those who had been carried into exile by King Nebuchadnezzar.  Karen H.  Jobes explains that years later, a new King fulfilled a prophetic word and allowed the Jews to return to their homeland.  The story of Esther occurs 50 years after this, which means both Mordecai and Esther’s families had the opportunity to return home to Jerusalem, but willfully chose not to.[5]

If we look at Esther in comparison with other people in the Bible, we see her moral resolve sorely lacking.  For example, in Daniel 6, King Darius decreed that no one was to worship or pray to anyone but himself.  Daniel was not intimidated by this, but continued to get down on his knees and pray to God three times a day, even though it almost cost him his life.

Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego were three men who were extremely courageous under pressure.  In Daniel 3, we find out that they were given the choice to either bow down to King Nebuchadnezzar or be thrown into a furnace.  They boldly stood their ground – they did not hide their identity. This is not what we see in Esther.  She is passive and compliant.  She does not stand up for what she knows is right.


Some would argue that Esther was simply a victim, a good girl who made something good out of a bad situation.  King Xerxes was an extremely powerful man.  It is fair to say that even if Esther would have tried to resist being taken or sleeping with him, she would not have been successful.

In Esther 2:8 it says that “many young women were brought to the citadel of Susa… Esther also was taken” (emphasis added).  Some have suggested that this implies Esther was taken against her own will.[7]  This is merely speculation, for the author does not go out of his way to tell us this.

In the Septuagint, a Greek version of Esther, we find a prayer that Esther allegedly prayed: “You know that I hate the splendor of the wicked and abhor the bed of the uncircumcised and of any alien.  You know my necessity – that I abhor the sign of my proud position… And your servant has not eaten at Haman’s table, and I have not honored the king’s feast or drunk the wine of libations.” [8]

This suggests that she did not sin by eating the King’s food or drinking the wine offered to the pagan gods.  There are other additions in the Septuagint, which include additional prayers and a much more dramatic version of Esther’s meeting with the King.

If this were true, it would show Esther to have high moral standards – however, it is widely believed by Biblical scholars that the Septuagint was written after the Hebrew version of Esther in order to answer some of these questions of morality.  As a result, it is not considered to be authentic, but merely a dramatic retelling of the story.[9]

Another proposal is that because Esther’s immoral actions resulted in the salvation of the Jewish people, her guilt is absolved.  Charles R.  Swindoll thinks that, “Esther went in to the king without fear because she had no driving ambition to be queen… She was there for one reason: because she knew that the hand of God was on her life, and through circumstances and Mordecai’s wisdom, she had been brought to this place for a reason.”[10]

Karen H.  Jobes poses some questions to those who see Esther in this light.

 “What role model messages would you tell to teenage girls from this book?  ‘Make yourself as attractive as possible to powerful men?  Use your body to advance God’s kingdom?  The end justifies the means?’” [11]


Though Esther may not be an example of right living, her story is still full of hope.  Tim Keller emphasizes that, “The message of the Bible is not that God blesses and saves those who live moral exemplary lives. The message is that God persistently and continuously gives His grace to those who don’t ask for it, deserve it, or fully appreciate it after they get it.”[12]  Bryan R.  Gregory affirms that the story of Esther is not to give us a Heroine of the faith, but to show God’s redemptive power in spite of her failures.[13]

Esther is a girl with a Hebrew and Persian name.  It seems to illustrate her struggle to find her identity.  Even though Esther did not live according to God’s laws and married a Pagan King, God still redeemed her situation to save His people.  When faced with the annihilation of her people, she finally finds her resolve.  This cowardly Queen becomes courageous enough to stand up for what is right.


God’s name is never mentioned in the book of Esther.  But His sovereign hand of grace is so apparent in the lives of the disobedient Jews living in Babylon.  Though undeserving, He still rescues and protects His people.  The story of Esther is one of my favorite illustrations of the grace and courage that God gives to cowards!



  • Berlin, Adele.  “Greek Versions of Esther.”  Myjewishlearning.com http://www.myjewishlearning.  com/article/greek-versions-of-esther/ (accessed on October 11, 2016)
  • Bible Gateway. “Greek Esther 5.” No date. https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Greek%20Esther+5&version=NRSV (accessed October 11, 2016)
  • Driscoll, Mark.  “Jesus is a Better Savior.” Sermon notes.  September 23, 2012. 
  • Fox, Michael V.  Character and Ideology in the Book of Esther.  Grand Rapids, Michigan. William B.  Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2001.
  • Gregory, Bryan R.  Inconspicuous Providence.  Phillipsburg, New Jersey.  P&R Publishing Company, 2014.
  • Jobes, Karen H.  The NIV Application Commentary: Esther.  Grand Rapids, Michigan. Zondervan Publishing Hose, 1999.
  • Keller, Tim. “The Silent Sovereignty of God.” Sermon notes. Spring 2007.
  • Stedman, Ray C.  The Queen and I.  Waco, Texas.  Word Books, 1978.
  • Swindoll, Charles R.  Esther: A Woman of Strength & Dignity.  Nashville, Tennessee.  Word Publishing, Inc., 1997.